Many of them near the city worked on sugar and cotton plantations,[28] while most of those in the city limits had domestic and artisan jobs. [286][287][288] The third-largest university in Texas, the University of Houston has nearly 44,000 students on its 667-acre (270-hectare) campus in the Third Ward. [125] Under Texas law Harris County, like other more rural Texas counties, cannot direct developers where to build or not build via land use controls such as a zoning ordinance, and instead can only impose general floodplain regulations for enforcement during subdivision approvals and building permit approvals. In southwest Houston, Houston Baptist University (HBU), founded in 1960, offers bachelor's and graduate degrees at its Sharpstown campus. According to a study in 2016 by Berman Jewish DataBank, 51,000 Jews lived in the area, an increase of 4,000 since 2001. The thick, rich, sometimes black, surface soil is suitable for rice farming in suburban outskirts where the city continues to grow.[74][75]. [dubious – discuss][123], In a recent case testing these regulations, near the Brickhouse Gulley, an old golf course that long served as a floodplain and reservoir for flood waters, announced a change of heart toward intensifying development. [52] During the floods in 2015 and 2016, each of which dropped at least a foot of rain,[53] parts of the city were covered in several inches of water. There were 4,593 households, out of which 47.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.1% were married couples living together, 13.9% had a female householder with no husband present, and 19.5% were non-families. In 2015, 8.3 percent of Houston households lacked a car, which was virtually unchanged in 2016 (8.1 percent). [14] South Houston is within District 6 of the Texas Senate; as of 2008 Mario Gallegos is the representative. A megachurch, it had 44,800 weekly attendees in 2010, up from 11,000 weekly in 2000. [11], The South Houston Fire Department serves the city. Texas was always, at most, an outlying state in the South, and large enough to encompass many different cultures, something most of the rest of the South can't really claim. Renewable energy sources—wind and solar—are also growing economic bases in the city. Arterial roads are organized into four categories, in decreasing order of intensity: major thoroughfares, transit corridor streets, collector streets, and local streets. [203] The city ranked fourth for highest increase in the local technological innovation over the preceding 15 years, according to Forbes magazine. South Texas College of Law Houston is the oldest law school in the city of Houston. Of the 10 most populous U.S. cities, Houston has the most total area of parks and green space, 56,405 acres (228 km2). [161], Before the legalization of same-sex marriage in the United States the first marriage in Houston took place on October 5, 1972. [198], In 2006, the Houston metropolitan area ranked first in Texas and third in the U.S. within the category of "Best Places for Business and Careers" by Forbes magazine. The JPMorgan Chase Tower is the tallest building in Texas and the tallest 5-sided building in the world. Houston is a majority-minority city. The tallest building in Uptown is the 64-floor, 901-foot (275 m)-tall, Philip Johnson and John Burgee designed landmark Williams Tower (known as the Transco Tower until 1999). [123] In places this led to feet of standing water that blocked streets and flooded homes. These degree-holders tend to stay in Houston. [335] Houston City Council approved the Houston Bike Plan in March 2017, at that time entering the plan into the Houston Code of Ordinances. As of 2008 the mayor is Joe Soto. Houston attracts many touring Broadway acts, concerts, shows, and exhibitions for a variety of interests. Stele to Sayers, September 11–12, 1900, "Marvin Hurley, 1910–1920, Houston History", "Population of the 100 Largest Cities and Other Urban Places in the United States: 1790 to 1990", "Texas – Race and Hispanic Origin for Selected Cities and Other Places: Earliest Census to 1990", "Ellington Field: A Short History, 1917–1963", "Recovery Beginning in Areas Affected by Hurricane Rita", 8th Congressional District of Texas 2007 Appropriations Project Requests, "How Houston's 'Wild West' growth may have contributed to devastating flooding", "Nearly 900 Rescued in Houston in Deadly Flooding", "Texas flood disaster: Harvey has unloaded 9 trillion gallons of water", "Hurricane Harvey was year's costliest U.S. disaster at $125 billion in damages", "Harvey certain to be one of the most expensive natural disasters ever", "Houston City Council agrees to cut water bills bloated by Harvey", "Houston City Council may cut Harvey-spiked water bills", "Texas Leads Nation In Deadly Crane Accidents, Target Of OSHA Safety Enforcement", "4 Killed as Huge Crane Topples at a Houston Refinery", "Distance from Houston, TX, USA to Walter Umphrey State Park, Martin Luther King Junior Drive, Port Arthur, TX, USA", Football power in Texas has shifted to Houston, Houston (city) QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau, "The trouble with living in a swamp: Houston floods explained", Flood Forecasting for the Buffalo Bayou Using CRWR-PrePro and HEC-HMS, "Houston-Galveston, Texas Managing Coastal Subsidence", "Mapping Active Faults in the Houston Area using LIDAR Data, #50034 (2006)", Faults in Parts of North-Central and Western Houston Metropolitan Area, Texas, Principal Faults in the Houston, Texas, Metropolitan Area, "A System of Government Where Business Ruled", "Harris County Budget Management: Population Study", "FOCUS: Houston; A Fresh Approach To Zoning", "Neighborhood groups fight to keep people in poverty by blocking affordable housing – HoustonChronicle.com", "Lack of zoning has paid off for Houston", "The Healthiest Housing Markets for 2009 – Local Markets, Construction, Home Prices", "2019 Was A Record Year For Houston's Housing Market", "How many skylines do you think Houston has? Comprising a total area of 637.4 square miles (1,651 km2),[10] Houston is the eighth-most expansive city in the United States (including consolidated city-counties). [34] In 1940, the U.S. Census Bureau reported Houston's population as 77.5% White and 22.4% Black. For other uses, see, ‡This populated place also has portions in an adjacent county or counties The region is serviced by four spoke tollways: a set of managed lanes on the Katy Freeway; the Hardy Toll Road, which parallels Interstate 45 north of Downtown up to Spring; the Westpark Tollway, which services Houston's western suburbs out to Fulshear; and Fort Bend Parkway, which connects to Sienna Plantation. According to the 2000 Census, the community has a population of 22,282. [30] After the Civil War, Houston businessmen initiated efforts to widen the city's extensive system of bayous so the city could accept more commerce between Downtown and the nearby port of Galveston. [13], South Houston is located in District 145 of the Texas House of Representatives. The city had 7,523 inhabitants in 1960. Pitmaster Lance Eaker of the Eaker Barbecue food truck in Houston bills his barbecue as “South Texas style,” referring to his influences growing up in Uvalde, where mesquite is the wood of choice. Other nicknames often used by locals include "Bayou City", "Clutch City", "Crush City", "Magnolia City", "H-Town", and "Culinary Capital of the South". [114] The majority of rainfall occurs between April and October (the wet season of Southeast Texas), when the moisture from the Gulf of Mexico evaporates extensively over the city. [277], In the early 1970s, Houston, Pasadena and several coastal towns were the site of the Houston mass murders, which at the time were the deadliest case of serial killing in American history. [226][227][228], The Houston Theater District, located in Downtown, is home to nine major performing arts organizations and six performance halls. The Lee and Joe Jamail Skatepark is a public skatepark owned and operated by the city of Houston, and is one of the largest skateparks in Texas consisting of a 30,000-ft2 (2,800 m2)in-ground facility. ][334] In 2015, Downtown Houston added a cycle track on Lamar Street, running from Sam Houston Park to Discovery Green. Houston hosts the annual Houston College Classic baseball tournament every February, and the Texas Kickoff and Bowl in September and December, respectively.[256]. The Metropolitan Transit Authority of Harris County (METRO) provides public transportation in the form of buses, light rail, high-occupancy vehicle (HOV) lanes, and paratransit to fifteen municipalities throughout the Greater Houston area and parts of unincorporated Harris County. Houston is the most diverse metropolitan area in Texas and has been described as the most racially and ethnically diverse major metropolis in the U.S.[18] It is home to many cultural institutions and exhibits, which attract more than 7 million visitors a year to the Museum District. From historical sites to unique festivals and celebrations, there is always something to see and do in South Texas. Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. [6] Because of the 1913 incorporation, Houston did not incorporate South Houston's territory into its city limits, while Houston annexed surrounding areas that were unincorporated. The city of Houston was incorporated in 1837 and adopted a ward system of representation shortly afterward in 1840. Houston Forward Times is one of the largest black-owned newspapers in the metropolitan area and owned by Forward Times Publishing Company. [69] The city once relied on groundwater for its needs, but land subsidence forced the city to turn to ground-level water sources such as Lake Houston, Lake Conroe, and Lake Livingston. [270], Houston had 303 homicides in 2015 and 302 homicides in 2016. The Bank of America Center by Philip Johnson is an example of postmodern architecture. Westpark Tollway and Fort Bend Parkway are operated conjunctly with the Fort Bend County Toll Road Authority. Landlocked farmers brought their produce to Houston, using Buffalo Bayou to gain access to Galveston and the Gulf of Mexico. [321] Completed segments D through G provide a continuous 70.4-mile (113.3 km) limited-access tollway connection between Sugar Land, Katy, Cypress, Spring, and Porter.[321]. Houston merchants profited from selling staples to farmers and shipping the farmers' produce to Galveston. The city has a population from various ethnic and religious backgrounds and a large and growing international community. [301] Other notable publications include Houston Forward Times, OutSmart, and La Voz de Houston. Much of the city was built on forested land, marshes, or swamps, and all are still visible in surrounding areas. During its recent history, Houston has flooded several times from heavy rainfall, which has been becoming increasingly common. 81% of the South Park population is predominately African American, compared to 25% for the city as a whole. [113] Overall, there have been more casualties and property loss from floods in Houston than in any other locality in the United States. [209][210], In 2013, Houston was identified as the number one U.S. city for job creation by the U.S. Bureau of Statistics after it was not only the first major city to regain all the jobs lost in the preceding economic downturn, but also after the crash, more than two jobs were added for every one lost. News // Houston & Texas Texas 2 South Texas believers say they saw Bigfoot Will Axford, Houston Chronicle Nov. 16 ... "I never thought Bigfoot would be in South Texas… [337], Houston's bicycle sharing system started service with nineteen stations in May 2012. Houston's mayor serves as the city's chief administrator, executive officer, and official representative, and is responsible for the general management of the city and for seeing that all laws and ordinances are enforced.[262]. [38], In 1945, the M.D. It is the second-largest concentration of theater seats in a Downtown area in the United States. The October 2013 event was held using a tweaked version of the 2006–2007 course. [199] Ninety-one foreign governments have established consular offices in Houston's metropolitan area, the third-highest in the nation. According to the 2005 Houston Area Survey, 68 percent of non-Hispanic whites in Harris County are declared or favor Republicans while 89 percent of non-Hispanic blacks in the area are declared or favor Democrats. It is where one of the first—and still the largest—air emergency service, Life Flight, was created, and an inter-institutional transplant program was developed. Overall, Houston has seen measurable snowfall 38 times between 1895 and 2018. A system of toll roads, operated by the Harris County Toll Road Authority (HCTRA) and Fort Bend County Toll Road Authority (FBCTRA), provides additional options for regional commuters. Nineteen school districts exist within the city of Houston. The stations broadcast from the Melcher Center for Public Broadcasting, located on the campus of the University of Houston. George Bush Intercontinental Airport (IAH), located 23 miles (37 km) north of Downtown Houston between Interstates 45 and 69, is the eighth busiest commercial airport in the United States (by total passengers and aircraft movements) and forty-third busiest globally. The eastern portion of South Texas is bordered by the Gulf of Mexico. [212] The Greater Houston metropolitan area is home to an estimated 1.1 million (21.4 percent) residents who were born outside the United States, with nearly two-thirds of the area's foreign-born population from south of the United States–Mexico border since 2009. Economic gains of blacks who entered defense industries continued in the postwar years. South Houston is a city in the U.S. state of Texas, within Houston–The Woodlands–Sugar Land metropolitan area and Harris County. They have won two NBA Championships, one in 1994 and another in 1995 under star players Hakeem Olajuwon, Otis Thorpe, Clyde Drexler, Vernon Maxwell, and Kenny Smith. In 2012, the Houston–The Woodlands–Sugar Land area recorded $110.3 billion in merchandise exports. The arrival of the 20th century had a convergence of economic factors that fueled rapid growth in Houston, including a burgeoning port and railroad industry, the decline of Galveston as Texas's primary port following a devastating 1900 hurricane, the subsequent construction of the Houston Ship Channel, and the Texas oil boom. [170], The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Galveston-Houston, the largest Catholic jurisdiction in Texas and fifth-largest in the United States, was established in 1847. The Rio Grande serves as the western and southern boundaries and separates Texas from Mexico. In 2010, whites (including Hispanic whites) made up 57.6% of the city of Houston's population; 24.6% of the total population was non-Hispanic whites. The city is crossed by three Interstate highways, Interstate 10, Interstate 45, and Interstate 69 (commonly known as U.S. Route 59), as well as a number of other United States routes and state highways. The innermost loop is Interstate 610, commonly known as the Inner Loop, which encircles Downtown, the Texas Medical Center, Greenway Plaza, the cities of West University Place and Southside Place, and many core neighborhoods. It is the tallest structure in Texas, 19th tallest building in the United States, and was previously 85th-tallest skyscraper in the world, based on highest architectural feature. The city of Houston was founded by land investors on August 30, 1836,[11] at the confluence of Buffalo Bayou and White Oak Bayou (a point now known as Allen's Landing) and incorporated as a city on June 5, 1837. [268], Texas has banned sanctuary cities,[269] but Houston Mayor Sylvester Turner said that Houston will not assist ICE agents with immigration raids. [318] A plurality of survey respondents also indicated that traffic congestion was the most significant problem facing the metropolitan area. Sizable numbers, however, came through the domestic slave trade. Houston has the NFL's first retractable-roof stadium with natural grass, NRG Stadium (home of the Texans). [267] In 2009, Houston became the first U.S. city with a population over 1 million citizens to elect a gay mayor, by electing Annise Parker. Houston Public Radio is listener-funded and comprises one NPR member station, KUHF (News 88.7). The town suffered another setback that year when a yellow fever epidemic claimed about one life for every eight residents, yet it persisted as a commercial center, forming a symbiosis with its Gulf Coast port, Galveston. Hurricane Harvey damaged hundreds of thousands of homes and dumped trillions of gallons of water into the city. TDECU Stadium is where the University of Houston's Cougars football team plays. [254], Houston has hosted several major sports events: the 1968, 1986 and 2004 Major League Baseball All-Star Games; the 1989, 2006 and 2013 NBA All-Star Games; Super Bowl VIII, Super Bowl XXXVIII, and Super Bowl LI, as well as hosting the 1981, 1986, 1994 and 1995 NBA Finals, winning the latter two, and hosting the 2005 World Series, 2017 World Series and 2019 World Series. Get Houston's weather and area codes, time zone and DST. Nationwide, about 71% of respondents identified as Christians. Some of the academic and research health institutions at the center include MD Anderson Cancer Center, Baylor College of Medicine, UT Health Science Center, Memorial Hermann Hospital, Houston Methodist Hospital, Texas Children's Hospital, and University of Houston College of Pharmacy. [261] Under the city charter, once the population in the city limits exceeded 2.1 million residents, two additional districts were to be added. [36], Houston is a flat, marshy area where an extensive drainage system has been built. [49][50] In September 2008, Houston was hit by Hurricane Ike. [71], Houston has four major bayous passing through the city that accept water from the extensive drainage system. Texas Southern University is the first state university in Houston, founded in 1927.[290]. The 88-mile (142 km) State Highway Beltway 8, often referred to as the Beltway, forms the middle loop at a radius of roughly 10 miles (16 km). The city of Houston has a strong mayoral form of municipal government. African Americans formed a large part of the city's population, numbering 23,929 people, which was nearly one-third of Houston's residents. [55] The rainfall exceeded 50 inches in several areas locally, breaking the national record for rainfall. [171] The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Galveston-Houston claims approximately 1.7 million Catholics within its boundaries. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 7.8 km2, none of which is covered with water. Buffalo Bayou runs through Downtown and the Houston Ship Channel, and has three tributaries: White Oak Bayou, which runs through the Houston Heights community northwest of Downtown and then towards Downtown; Brays Bayou, which runs along the Texas Medical Center;[72] and Sims Bayou, which runs through the south of Houston and Downtown Houston. In addition, Hispanics made up 37.4% of Houston's population in 2000, while non-Hispanic whites made up 30.8%. A post office appeared in 1910. Parts of South Houston are not served by any "middle school" and instead are served by elementary schools, intermediate schools, and high schools. [263] At-large council members represent the entire city. Houston voters lengthen term limits for city officials ", FBI Uniform 2010 (prov.) Parts east of Old Galveston Road are served by Queens Intermediate School (Pasadena, Grades 6-8). [73] Underpinning Houston's land surface are unconsolidated clays, clay shales, and poorly cemented sands up to several miles deep. [294][295], The University of Houston–Downtown, located in Downtown, is the second-largest institution of higher education in Houston. [342] The four-runway, 1,304-acre (528-hectare) facility is located approximately 7 miles (11 km) southeast of Downtown Houston. [109] During the mid-2010s, Greater Houston experienced consecutive major flood events in 2015 ("Memorial Day"),[111] 2016 ("Tax Day"),[112] and 2017 (Hurricane Harvey). For most public hunting areas in South Texas, dove access closed at the end of the first stint. Verdun's applications helped make Karnes the most active South Texas … Parts of South Houston are zoned to Carter Lomax Middle School (Pasadena, Grades 5-6). The population was 16,983 at the 2010 census. [84][86] The city issued 42,697 building permits in 2008 and was ranked first in the list of healthiest housing markets for 2009. [103][104] The record highest temperature recorded in Houston is 109 Â°F (43 Â°C) at Bush Intercontinental Airport, during September 4, 2000, and again on August 27, 2011. [187] Petroleum products, chemicals, and oil and gas extraction equipment accounted for roughly two-thirds of the metropolitan area's exports last year. Houston's violent crime rate was 8.6% percent higher in 2016 from the previous year. In the 1950s the library moved into a building with a welfare office and a clinic. Space Center Houston is the official visitors' center of NASA's Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center. [169], Lakewood Church in Houston, led by Pastor Joel Osteen, is the largest church in the United States. Because of these strengths, Houston is designated as a global city by the Globalization and World Cities Study Group and Network and global management consulting firm A.T. The South Houston City Council establishes city policies, considering resolutions and ordinances, appointing South Houston residents to positions on municipal committees and boards, and establishing the annual budgets. Houston also hosts a number of graduate schools in law and healthcare. National Weather Service Forecast Office, Houston/Galveston, Texas. [323] Notable arterial roads in the region include Westheimer Road, Memorial Drive, Texas State Highway 6, Farm to Market Road 1960, Bellaire Boulevard, and Telephone Road. The median household income in 2018 was $51,140 and 20.6% of Houstonians lived at or below the poverty line. About 24% of the population was below the poverty line, including 25.8% of those under age 18 and 10.5% of those age 65 or over. [13], The great majority of enslaved people in Texas came with their owners from the older slave states. Downtown was on the threshold of an energy industry–led boom in 1970. In 2000 there were over 41 mosques and storefront religious centers, with the largest being the Al-Noor Mosque (Mosque of Light) of the Islamic Society of Greater Houston. [82], Though Houston is the largest city in the United States without formal zoning regulations, it has developed similarly to other Sun Belt cities because the city's land use regulations and legal covenants have played a similar role. Things to Do in South Houston, Texas: See Tripadvisor's 6 traveler reviews and photos of South Houston tourist attractions. [197][198] This is in addition to the 12,500 new graduates the U.H. The hurricane of 1915 destroyed many of the local industries. [116] The industries located along the ship channel are a major cause of the city's air pollution. [348] Houston's aviation history is showcased in the 1940 Air Terminal Museum, located in the old terminal building on the west side of the airport. [13] They successfully lobbied the Republic of Texas Congress to designate Houston as the temporary capital, agreeing to provide the new government with a state capitol building. The establishment of the Houston Ship Channel resulted in the establishment of manufacturing industries inland, including in South Houston. [146][147][148] A 2012 Kinder Institute report found that, based on the evenness of population distribution between the four major racial groups in the United States (non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, Hispanic or Latino, and Asian), Greater Houston was the most ethnically diverse metropolitan area in the United States, ahead of New York City. [275], Houston is a significant hub for trafficking of cocaine, cannabis, heroin, MDMA, and methamphetamine due to its size and proximity to major illegal drug exporting nations. [153][154][155] In 2018 the city scored a 70 out of 100 for LGBT friendliness. [247] The Houston Rockets are a National Basketball Association franchise based in the city since 1971. In addition, some public school districts also have their own charter schools. [87] In 2019, home sales reached a new record of $30 billion. [139] Individuals from two or more races made up 2.1% of the city. The city controller is elected independently of the mayor and council. During the late 1970s, Houston had a population boom as people from the Rust Belt states moved to Texas in large numbers. [15], South Houston is within Texas's 29th congressional district; as of 2008 Gene Green is the representative. [12][13] The city is named after former General Sam Houston, who was president of the Republic of Texas and had won Texas's independence from Mexico at the Battle of San Jacinto 25 miles (40 km) east of Allen's Landing. In September 2010, Outreach Magazine published a list of the 100 largest Christian churches in the United States, and on the list were the following Houston-area churches: Lakewood, Second Baptist Church Houston, Woodlands Church, Church Without Walls, and First Baptist Church. Prairie View A&M University's nursing school is located in the Texas Medical Center. [186] The Houston Ship Channel is also a large part of Houston's economic base. [257] The event had a 5-year race contract through 2017 with IndyCar. The central region of Texas lies in between the state's three largest metropolitan areas - Houston, Dallas-Fort Worth, and San Antonio - and along its three largest interior … [17], Nicknamed the "Bayou City", "Space City", "H-Town", and "the 713", Houston has become a global city, with strengths in culture, medicine, and research. [36] Ellington Field, initially built during World War I, was revitalized as an advanced training center for bombardiers and navigators. [24], Sections of South Houston west of Old Galveston Road are served by Rick Schneider Middle School (Houston, Grades 5-6). [51] This has been exacerbated by a lack of zoning laws, which allowed unregulated building of residential homes and other structures in flood-prone areas. [172], A variety of Eastern and Oriental Orthodox churches can be found in Houston. fourth-most populous city in the United States, eighth-most expansive city in the United States, natural disasters in the history of the United States, Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Galveston-Houston, Antiochian Orthodox Archdiocese of North America, Globalization and World Cities Study Group and Network, List of colleges and universities in Houston, 10 largest institutions of higher learning, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, University of Houston College of Pharmacy, Metropolitan Transit Authority of Harris County, United States Department of Transportation, Learn how and when to remove this template message, "Top 10 Ways to Identify a Native Houstonian", "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Incorporated Places of 50,000 or More, Ranked by July 1, 2019 Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2019", "Counties with the Largest Population Gains Since 2010 are in Texas", "The Texas Triangle Megaregion Nears 21 Million Residents", "Promise – and a few fibs – launched this city's destiny", "2010 Port Industry Statistics, American Association of Port Authorities", "Houston Surpasses New York And Los Angeles As The 'Most Diverse In Nation, "Karankawas were among the First Texas Indians Encountered by Europeans", "Houston's Native American Heritage Runs Deep", J.H.W. 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